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Wright's research is remarkable for both its scope and its diversity of method, and the editors have put together a volume that shares these qualities. Moehling, EH. This work shows the ways in which economic theory must demonstrate the dependence of the economy on the past, as well as the ways in which theory has illuminated history. The high quality essays included are as exciting as they are important. Economic Evolution and Revolution in Historical Time. Description Desc. Net "This is a superb collection of studies, giving strong evidence on the role of history in determining the evolution of the economy, in particular the way present contours are influenced by specific elements of past history.

Arrow, Stanford University, recipient of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics "This volume constitutes a bold and refreshing contribution to the field of economic history. Coclanis, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill "A wonderfully diverse collection of first-rate articles by some of the best economic historians around.

Table of Contents.

Gayle Olson-Raymer Evolution or Revolution? Our story in Units I and II has moved from the early founding of the British North American colonies to the rising social, political, and economic discontent that had arisen within the colonies by the middle of the 18th Century. Today, we are moving into yet another chapter of our story - how and why the colonists revolted against England. So let's begin with the story of the American Revolution that most Americans know and love.

Goal 1: To understand how the French and Indian War pushed the colonists toward independence.

Industrial Revolution

It was bloodiest and most widely-fought American war in the 18th century, taking more lives than the American Revolution and involving people on three continents, including the Caribbean. The war was but one of many imperial struggles between the French and English over colonial territory and wealth both in North America and in Europe, as well as a product of the local rivalry between British and French colonists.

So, what led us into this war? For years, the French had been bulding a strong of forts from Lake Erie towards the forks of the Ohio River present-day Pittsburgh to limit British influence along their frontier. However, the colony of Virginia also claimed the same region. By September , the British controlled all of the North American frontier; the war between the two countries was effectively over.

The results of the war effectively ended French political and cultural influence in North America. England gained massive amounts of land and vastly strengthened its hold on the continent. The war, however, also had other results. To handle their debt, the British enacted a series of policies that became the first steps along the road to revolution. After the War, the British were essentially broke and desperately in need of income and goods to bolster their economy - income and goods that they believed were readily available from the American colonies.

Thus, Parliament took two steps that were unprecedented and conflicted greatly with the colonial tradition of representative government:. Goal 2: To understand the road to the American Revolution. After the first steps toward war - the placement of British troops and the Intolerable Acts - the road to revolution still moved slowly:.


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Goal 3: To examine the myths of the American Revolution. The Myths of the American Revolution :. Myth 1: The colonists had suffered over a hundred years of unfair taxes.

The second industrial revolution – 1870

The "bottom line" - Colonists had always paid taxes, most of which were imposed by their own colonial legislature. The colonists felt the new taxation laws favored England at the expense of the colonies. So, just how did the King and the British government respond to various colonial actions? The colonists claimed King George was a tyrant - an absolute ruler who governed without restrictions and who exercises power in a harsh, cruel manner.

But was the King really a tyrant?

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The "bottom line" - Not until thousands of dollars worth of property was destroyed in Boston harbor did the British government - many of whose members were investors in the East India Tea Company- retaliate. For the British, as it would be for the founding fathers of the United States, the sanctity of private property was worth protecting.

Did all Americans - north and south, white, Indian, slave, female and male, rich and poor - greet the Declaration of Independence with uniform enthusiasm?

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After the divisive experiences of the Vietnam war and the current divisions over the war in Afghanistan, it is appealing to think that there was an overwhelming consensus for Independence. But it was not so. We do know that during the war, about one-third of all Americans continued their opposition. In fact, in , there were more Americans fighting with the British than with Washington: 21 regiments of Loyalists consisting of between men, compared with Washington's field army of As the war progressed many of these neutral colonists did join the American cause, but several historians have shown that this was not an ideological or political choice: the British army behaved so badly everywhere it went, looting, raping, destroying, that it literally drove many colonists into the revolutionary camp.

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The "bottom line" - Understanding that the Revolutionary War was not a unified effort - that people both supported and opposed the war - does not detract from the story. In fact, it makes it a more real, more exciting, and even more patriotic story by illustrating yet again the diversity of the people who made up the nation that would soon become the United States. In reality, Americans armed themselves and outfitted their troops with money borrowed from France, Holland and Spain.