Life before the living on the reservation included the freedom to travel, to gather and hunt, and even to wander but that was radically altered when they were forced to move All through the article, Axtell summarizes the life of the Native Americans after Columbus acquainted America to the world.
These values can be reinforced or expressed through stories, songs, art, and rituals. A language is an important tool for preserving culture. Many groups of people have their cultural practices that are part and parcel of their lives.
Plains Indian sign language | communications | oxlosilgoma.cf
However, Native Americans have a richer and varied culture. They have a history that is rich in triumph, strife and struggle Powerful Essays words 4.
Chances are these people would have a hard time telling the same story if asked not to use their hands. Additionally, the story told without the assistance of gesture would likely seem lackluster by comparison.
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The question becomes, to what degree is gesture an integral part of effective storytelling and how much does it add to the complexity and richness of a story Free Essays words Their goal was to turn them into white men. Schools were an important part of facilitating their goal. It was the first school in which Native American children were culturally exposed to American ideology. The idea for the boarding school first came through treatment of Cheyenne warriors.
In the s, Americans were in the midst of a major western migration Essay about Native American Sign Language. Essay Preview. Read Full Essay Click the button above to view the complete essay, speech, term paper, or research paper.
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Repression of the Native American Society Essay - Intro: Ever since the first white settlers arrived at America in , the Native American population has been seen as a minority. Although sign language was, and still is, primarily used for communication by the deaf community, it also holds a history among the Native Americans of North America. Native North American languages are considered rather sophisticated.
By the late nineteenth century researchers concluded that over seventy different languages existed among the various native tribes in North America. Furthermore, there also existed a great variety of dialects of the same language making it extremely difficult to be fluent in numerous languages.
Plains Indian Sign Language
The wide variety of languages and dialects was a result of natural causes, such as internal trouble, wars with other tribes, and the segregation which takes place when humanity is in the hunter state. Thus, after a long period of time, articulate speech was developed, perfected and marked by the influences of the tribes surroundings resulting in various linguistic and dialectic boundaries. As a result, Indian sign language, also known as Plains Sign Language was developed by Indian societies as a means of communication between the tribes of American Indians who spoke different vocal languages.
Indian sign language was used mainly by the nomadic tribes of the Great Plaines, the land bounded by the Mississippi on the east and the Rocky Mountains on the west.
The Gods of Indian Country: Religion and the Struggle for the American West
This land was known for its famous mounted hunters of bison, the Plains Indians, Sioux, Cheyenne, Blackfoot and Kiowa. Indian sign language appears to have evolved in the same way as spoken language, progressing gradually from the representational to the symbolic, from the picture to the symbol, but still remaining primarily representational or ideographic. The symbols involved usually have a clear connection with the things they stands for: the form of an object, the movement of an action, or the placement of this or that.
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Most of the signs are made with both hands at chest level, but preferably the right, as the left serves mainly as an auxiliary. Whereas the deaf community use a great deal of facial contortion and grimace, Indian sign language seldom use facial expressions, but maintain a composed and dignified expression as the sign are sufficient of themselves. Moreover, one-hand free gestures are more numerous than two-hand ones, and evidently they are used more frequently and importantly in connected discourse. Apart from being a connecting form of communication between tribes, Indian sign language was used for additional purposes.
For example, during powwows, the chiefs used sign language to hold the attention of their listeners, who had to follow their most subtle gestures in order to be able to answer. In addition, Indian sign language was also indispensable on the warpath, where the success of a given maneuver depended on silence, and during the bison hunt, as it enabled different tribes to keep close to the herd and still be able to communicate with one another.